The KiVa approach is effective in reducing bullying

KiVa has been evaluated in a large randomised controlled trial including 117 intervention schools and 117 control schools. The programme has been shown to reduce both self-and peer-reported bullying and victimisation significantly1. It influences multiple forms of victimisation, including verbal, physical, and cyberbullying2. In addition, positive effects on school liking, academic motivation and achievement have been reported3. KiVa also reduces anxiety and depression and has a positive impact on students' perception of their peer climate4. A remarkable 98% of victims involved in discussions with the schools' KiVa teams felt that their situation improved5.

Finally, Finnish data from more than 1000 schools that started the implementation of KiVa in Autumn 2009 showed that after the first year of implementation, both victimisation and bullying had reduced significantly6. The KiVa programme won the European Crime Prevention Award in 2009.


1 Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Poskiparta, E., Kaljonen, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa anti-bullying program; Grades 4-6. Child Development, 82, 311-330.
Appendix on missing values

2 Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2011) Counteracting bullying in Finland: The KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied. International Journal of Behavioral Development,35, 405-411.

3 Salmivalli, C., Garandeau, C., & Veenstra, R. (2012). KiVa Anti-Bullying Program: Implications for School Adjustment. To be published in G. Ladd & A. Ryan (Eds.), Peer Relationships and Adjustment at School. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.(In press).

4 Williford, A., Noland, B., Little, T., Kärnä, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Effects of the KiVa anti-bullying program on adolescents' perception of peers, depression, and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

5 Garandeau, Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (under review). Tackling acute cases of bullying: Comparison of two methods in the context of the KiVa antibullying program.

6 Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Going to Scale: A nonrandomized nationwide trial of the KiVa antibullying program for comprehensive schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.